# Statistical Description of Data

1.Data Collected by investigator afresh by planning an inquiry, are called

(a) Primary Data

(b) Secondary data

(c) Personal Data

(d) Fictitious

Primary data are those data which are directly collected by the investigator. Secondary data are collected form published resources.

2. If the universe is limited and intensive study is essential, appropriate method of collection of data shall be

(a) Direct personal investigation

(b) Indirect oral investigation

(b) By questionnaires

(c) Filling of schedules by enumerators

If the universe is limited and intensive study is essential, appropriate method of collection of data shall be direct personal investigation because it will provide more reliable information.

3. The reason of mistakes in collection of primary data is because of

(a) Carelessness of investigators

(b) Biasness of investigators

(c) Carelessness of informants

(d) All the above

Primary data may be wrongly collected due to biasness of investigators, carelessness of investigators, carelessness of informants.

4. secondary data is collected from

(a) Direct personal investigation

(b) Published material

(c) Indirect oral investigation

(d) Collection of information by enumerators

Main source of secondary data is published materials.

5. Classified data may be presented in

(a) Tabulation

(b) Graphic presentation

(c) Diagramatic presentation

(d) All of the above            √

Statistical data may be presented in three forms namely

Table

Graph

Diagram

6. Primary data as compared to secondary data are

(a) Less reliable

(b) More reliable

(c) Equally reliable

(d) None of these.

Primary data are more reliable. Because they are collected directly from raw sources.

7. Numerical data presented in descriptive from are called

(a) Classified presentation

(b) Tabular presentation

(c) Graphical presentation

(d) Textual presentation

If numerical data are presented in descriptive form then it will be called Textual presentation.

8. Editing of collected data is done

(a)          For uniformity

(b)          For completeness

(c)           For accuracy

(d)          For all the above

Editing of collected data is done for uniformity,  completeness and accuracy

9. Discrete series are a part of a

(a)          Grouped data

(b)          Commutative series

(c)           Ungrouped data

(d)          All of these

Discrete series are a part of a grouped data.

10. Can unpublished data also be secondary data?

(a)          No

(b)          Yes

(c)           Uncertain

(d)          All of the above

Unpublished data can also be treated secondary data.

11. Circular diagrams are always

(a)          One-dimensional diagrams

(b)          Two-dimensional diagrams

(c)           Three dimensional diagrams

(d)          Cartograms

Circular diagrams are always two-dimensional diagram.

12. The objective of diagrammatic representation of data is

(a)          Condensation

(b)          Sumarization

(c)           Presentation      √

(d)          Analysis

The objective of diagrammatic representation of data is best presentation.

13. By graphs and diagrams

(a)          Data are Surveyed

(b)          Data are edited

(c)           Data are presented

(d)          Data are analysed

Graph and diagram are the method of presentation of data.

14. The sum all the relative frequencies in a sample is equal to

(a)          Sample size

(b)          Zero

(c)           One

(d)          Infinity

The sum of all the relative frequencies in a sample is equal to sample size.

15. A relative frequency distribution presents frequencies in terms of

(a)          Fractions

(b)          Whole numbers

(c)           Percentages

(d)          Both (a) and (c)

A relative frequency distribution presents frequencies in terms of both fractions and whole numbers.

16. In a bar diagram the base line is

(a)          Horizontal

(b)          Vertical

(c)           Any of the above

(d)          No base line

For drawing a bar diagrams both horizontal axis or vertical axis may be used for base line for the diagram.

17. The values which can be counted are known

(a)          Continuous variables

(b)          Discrete variables

(c)           Continuous & discrete variables

(d)          Values of variable cannot be counted

Discrete values can be counted. Continuous values can not be counted.

18. Which are not the two dimensional diagrams

(a)          Circular diagrams

(b)          Square diagrams

(c)           Simple bar diagrams

(d)          Rectangular diagrams

Circular diagrams, square diagrams, Rectangular diagrams are two dimensional diagrams. But simple bar diagrams are not dimensional diagrams.

19. In an ordered series, the data are

(a)          In descending order only

(b)          In ascending order only

(c)           Either (a) or (b)

(d)          Random

In an ordered series, data can be arranged either in descending order or ascending order.

20. Frequency of a variable is always

(a)          A ratio

(b)          A fraction

(c)           An integer

(d)          Any of the above

Frequency of a variable should always be an integer.

21. The other name of ogive curve is

(a)          Frequency histogram

(b)          Frequency polygon

(c)           Cumulative frequency polygon  √

(d)          All of the above.

Another name of ogive is in cumulative frequency polygon

22. Which statistical average can be calculated with the help of frequency graph?

(a)          Arithmetic mean

(b)          Mode

(c)           Harmonic mean

(d)          Geometric mean

For calculation of mode, frequency graph is prepared.

23. Year wise production of rice, wheat and maize for the last ten years can be displayed by

(a)          Simple column chart

(b)          Multiple column chart

(c)           Broken column chart

(d)          Subdivided column chart

Year wise production of rice, wheat and maize for last ten years can be displayed by multi-column charts rice will be depicted by a column. Wheat will be depicted by another column. Maize will be depicted by another column.

24. It is necessary to find cumulative frequency in order to draw

(a)          Pie chart

(b)          Frequency polygon

(c)           Ogive curve

(d)          Column chart

Cumulative frequency table is prepared to draw frequency polygon,

25. Pie-chart represents the components of a factor by

(a)          percentages

(b)          Angles

(c)           Sectors

(d)          Any of these

In a pie chart the components of a factor is represented by sectors.

26. A frequency distribution can be

(a)          Discrete

(b)          Continuous

(c)           Both (a) and (b)

(d)          Neither (a) nor (b)

There are two types of frequency distribution.

1. Discrete frequency distribution.

2. Continuous frequency distribution

27. The point of intersection of the two frequency curves provides

(a)          Mean

(b)          Third quartile

(c)           Median √

(d)          S.D.

The point of intersection of the two Cumulative frequency curves provides median.

28. Size of rectangles in Histograms are:

(a)          Same size

(b)          Are determined by class intervals and frequency

(c)           Any Unequal size

(d)          None of these

In case of Histograms, the size of rectangles are determined by class intervals and frequency.

29. From ogive can be obtained

(a)          First quartile

(b)          Mean

(c)           Mode

(d)          S.D.

First quartile can be obtained from ogive.

30. Ogive makes use of

(a)          Frequency in percentage from

(b)          Class interval only

(c)           Cumulative frequency

(d)          Any of these

Ogive uses cumulative frequency.

31. Choice of a particular chart depends on

(a)          The purpose of study

(b)          The type of data

(c)           The nature of data

(d)          All of the above

Choice of a particular chart depends on purpose of study, type of data & nature of data.

32. Pie Diagrams are

(a)          One dimensional

(b)          Two dimensional

(c)           Three dimensional

(d)          Six dimensional

Pie chart is an one dimensional diagram.

33. The following series is of the type of

Person  Age (in years)

A             15

B             13

C             16

D             22

E              20

(a)          Individual

(b)          Discrete

(c)           Geographical

(d)          Time Series

The series is of individual type.

34. The following series is of the type of

Marks                   No. of students

10-15                               25

15-20                               22

20-25                               25

25-30                               17

30-35                              13

35-40                              8

(a)          Discrete

(b)          Continuous

(c)           Individual

(d)          Time Series

The series is of continuous type.

35. Mode of a distribution can be obtained from

(a)          Histogram

(b)          Less than type Ogives

(c)           More than type Ogives

(d)          Frequency

Mode of a distribution can be from Histogram.

36. There are 100 educated and 200 uneducated out of 300 workers working in a factory. This method of classification

(a)          Chronological classification

(b)          Qualitative classification

(c)           Classification according to place

(d)          Quantitative classification

Data have been classified into educated workers and uneducated workers. It is classification using the quality of the workforce. It is not Geographical or quantitative classification. This classification has no relevance to place.

37. The mid value of a class interval is 43. If the class size 10, then the upper and lower limit of the class are:

(a)          47 & 37

(b)         48 & 38

(c)           41 & 52

(d)          45, 54

Let upper limit  = x
Lower limit = y
Mid value = $\displaystyle \frac{{x+y}}{2}$ i.e. $\displaystyle \frac{{Upper\text{ }limit\text{ }+\text{ }lower\text{ }limit}}{2}$
i.e.          Upper limit + lower limit $\displaystyle \therefore \frac{{x+y}}{2}$= 43 or, x + y = 86
As, class size = 10, $\displaystyle \therefore$x – y = 10 (i.e. upper class limit  & lower class limit = 10)
x + y = 86
x – y = 10
2x     = 96 $\displaystyle \therefore$ x     =  48 , $\displaystyle \therefore$ y =48 – 10 = 38 $\displaystyle \therefore$Lower limit = 38
Upper limit = 48

38. The chart that uses logarithm of the variable is known as

(a)          Line chart

(b)          Ratio chart

(c)           Multiple line chart

(d)          Component line chart.

Ratio chart uses logarithm of the variables.

39. Relative frequency for particular class

(a)          Lies between 0 and 1      √

(b)          Lies between 0 and 1, both inclusive

(c)           Lies between -1 and 0

(d)          Lies between -1 and 1.

Relative frequency for particular class lies between 0 and 1.

40. The following data relate to the incomes of 86 persons:

Income in Rs.     :               500-999                1000-1499            1500-1999            2000-2499

No. of persons  :               15                               28                           36                           7

What is the percentage of persons earning more than Rs.1500?

(a)          50

(b)         35

(c)           30

(d)          80

Total persons = 86
Persons earning more than Rs.1500
36+ 7 = 43
Percentage of persons earning more than 1500 = $\displaystyle \frac{{43}}{{86}}\times 100=50\%$

41. The following data relate to the marks of a group of students:

Marks   :                               Below 10              Below 20              Below 30              Below 40              Below 50

No. of students :                               15                           38                           65                           84           100

How many students got marks more than 30?

(a)          60

(b)          45

(c)           35

(d)          48

Total students = 100

Students obtained marks below 30  = 65

No. of students obtained marks above 30 is (100 – 65) = 35

42. Find the number of observations between 250 and 300 from the following data:

value     :                               More than 200   More than 250              More than 300   More than 350

No. of observations        :               56                     38                                           15                      10

(a)          52

(b)          23

(c)           20

(d)          18

Value more than 250   38

Value more than 300   15

Value between 250 and 300 = (38 – 15) = 23

43. Cumulative Frequency Distribution is a

(a)          Graph

(b)          Frequency

(c)           Statistical Table

(d)          Distribution

Cumulative frequency distribution is a statistical table.

44. An area diagram is

(a)          Histogram

(b)          Frequency Polygon

(c)           Ogive

(d)          Any of the above.

An area diagram is histogram

45. Ogive is a

(a)          Line diagram

(b)          Bar diagram

(c)           Table

(d)          Pie-chart

Ogive is a line diagram.

46. Classes with zero frequencies are called

(a)          Nil class

(b)          Empty class         √

(c)           Class boundaries

(d)          Class Limits

Classes with zero frequencies are called empty class.

47. Most extreme values which would ever be included in a class interval are called

(a)          Class limits

(b)          Class interval

(c)           Class boundaries

(d)          Class frequency

Most extreme values which would ever be included in a class interval are called class boundaries.

48. When one end of  a class is not specified, the class is called

(a)          Closed-end class

(b)          Open-end class

(c)           Endless Class

(d)          None of the above

When one end of a class is not specified, the class is called open-end class.